persian languages online lessons 968d1c0c

Project 6060 – Lesson 50

EN flag
EN
The Constitutional Movement
FR flag
FR
Le mouvement constitutionnel
ES flag
ES
El movimiento constitucional
FA flag
FA
جنبش مشروطه
  • EN
    EN flag

    Lesson 50

    The Constitutional Movement

    ***

    Translation

    For thousands of years, Iran was officiated as a kingdom. Some of the kings were unkind and some were friendly and respected. Some of them even lost parts of Iran. The highest power was always in the hand of the king, the people did not have a role in choosing the king or governing the country and in most cases, the king’s government was dictatorial.

    In the final two decades of the rule of Naser Aladdin Shah Qajer, the situation in Iran gradually got worse and the intellectuals, political activists, and clergy undertook widespread efforts to rein in the king’s power and subvert the totalitarianism until, in the end, a movement against the Qajer dynasty took shape, which was later named the constitutional revolution, or movement. After the death of Naser Aladdin Shah, the activities of this movement’s activists intensified and as a result of these activities, the first Iranian constitution was written and a national legislative assembly was formed so that Iran’s dictatorial government could become a constitutional kingdom.

    After the death of Naser Aladdin Shah, and the coronation of his son, Mozafferaladdin Shah, Iranian customs were in the hands of non-Iranians, the influence of the Russians in Iran increased, injustice and insecurity increased and there even arose problems with bread in the country. Because of this, the people were very dissatisfied. At this same time, sugar became expensive in Iran and the governor of Tehran sentenced a few traders to receive corporal punishment for selling at high prices. This caused the merchants, clergy and intellectuals to protest. They lectured at gatherings and in mosques against dictatorship and for the establishment of a court of justice, and also called for the dismissal of the chancellor and governor of Tehran. Some of the people and clergy went to the Hazrat-e Abdulazim Mosque in the town of Rey, close to Tehran and gathered there as a protest.

    After Mozafferaladdin Shah promised to dismiss the chancellor and form a court of justice, the scholars returned to Tehran; but the government did not do either of these things and the violence against people increased. As a result, the protests became more widespread, the scholars went to Qom, and the merchants and a number of the people went to the British embassy, fearing for their lives and staged a protest there. They requested that the scholars return and that the courts of justice be formed. With this, the chancellor resigned and the king elected a new prime minister.

    At this same time, Russia was defeated by Japan and in Russia a revolution began to develop. Upon witnessing the victory of a small Asian country that had a constitution over a European power that didn’t have a constitution, Iranians were no longer afraid to express their request. With the climax of the people’s movement, the topic of parliament and the restriction of the king’s power were gradually proposed.

    Eventually, Mozafferaladdin Shah signed a constitutional order in the final days of his life and after the drafting and legislation of the constitution, he agreed upon the establishment of a parliament. The scholars and clergy who had gone to Hazrat-e Abdulazim and Qom returned to Tehran and the sitting protest in the British embassy came to an end.

    In the end, the first parliament opened on the 7th of October 1906 in Tehran. On the basis of the constitution, some of the parliament’s duties included:

    • The production of a national budget
    • Approval of the transfer or sale of underground resources
    • Approval of changes in boundaries
    • Approval of contracts with foreign countries
    • Approval of the formation of national companies
    • Approval of any type of government contracts
    • Approval of the construction of roads and railways

    About one year later, preparations got underway for holding a grand celebration of the anniversary of the order for a constitution and the formation of the first parliament in front of the parliament. They decorated the whole enclosure and set up beautiful stalls in there. This ceremony continued for three days and nights. Amongst the other programmes in that celebration were a parade of school children, fireworks, a reception with sweet drinks and pastries and the attendance of members of national associations.

  • FR
    FR flag

    Leçon 50

    Le mouvement constitutionnel

    ***

    Traduction 

    Coming soon

  • ES
    ES flag

    Lección 50

    El movimiento constitucional

    ***

    Traducción

    Coming soon


DIALOGUE
DIALOGUE
DIÁLOGO
مُکالِمه
  • EN
    EN flag

    Translation of Dialogue

    Maryam: What people played a role in the constitutional movement?
    Bahman: All the people. Merchants, intellectuals, clergy.
    Maryam: What do you think caused the people to become dissatisfied?
    Bahman: Everything had become expensive. In particular, there was a shortage of bread.
    Maryam: Of course the people were also unhappy that loads of stuff was in the hands of foreigners.
    Bahman: That’s right. There were lots of factors.
    Maryam: Were the people after a parliament from day one?
    Bahman: No, at first they just wanted justice and for the governor of Tehran to change.
    Maryam: So then the intellectuals and scholars proposed the subject of a parliament?
    Bahman: Yes, that’s it.

  • FR
    FR flag

    Traduction de Dialogue

    Coming soon

  • ES
    ES flag

    Traducción de Diálogo

    Coming soon


Glossary
Glossaire
Glosario
واژِه نامه
Glossary Lesson 50

Pronunciation
Prononciation
Pronunciacion
تَلَفُّظ
pronunciation lesson42 b3daddfb

Alphabet; Shapes & Sequences
Click on image to see all 32 letters and their order and different shapes in Persian alphabet
Alphabet; Formes et Séquences
Clique sur l’image pour voir les 32 lettres, leurs ordres et différentes formes en alphabet persan
Alfabeto; Formas y Secuencias
Haga clic en la imagen para ver todas las 32 letras y sus diferentes formas en el alfabeto persa
اَشکالِ ظاهری و ترتیب حُروفِ اَلِفبا
روی تصویر کلیک کنید تا سی و دو حرف الفبای فارسی و ترتیب و اَشکال مختلف ظاهری آنها را ببینید
alfabet farsi 94407a3e

Practice and Activity
Pratique et Activité
Práctica y Actividad
تَمرین وَ فَعّالیَت

Free registration to track progress
Inscription gratuite pour suivre les progrès
Registro gratuito para seguir el progreso
ثبت نام رایگان برای پیگیری پیشرفت
Register in Persian Language Foundation 7194872c

preschool Persian Language Foundation 686daa33
kitten App (Gorbeh)
Application de Chaton
Aplicación de Gatito
اَپِ بَچّه گُربه
KItty app Persian Language Foundation 81b8e5ff

app cat Google Play Apple Store c2ba0c11

© 2015- - All Rights Reserved
SEO & Web Design Ottawa by ProLoyalWeb